Q&A: Timothy Brewer, MD, MPH, Chair of CUGH

August 17, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

This month, the Society had the opportunity to check in with Timothy Brewer, MD, MPH, chair of the board at the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH). Brewer is the Vice Provost for Interdisciplinary and Cross-Campus Affairs at UCLA. CUGH is a valued partner of ASTMH. Our organizations share several members and leaders, including Michele Barry, MD, FASTMH, CUGH board member and past ASTMH president.

1) CUGH is a relatively young organization. For those who might not be familiar with the goals and mission, how would you describe it?

A university is a community of scholars, and since the founding of the University of Bologna in 1088 individuals have been coming together in communities to share and to advance knowledge. The Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH), founded in 2008, is a community of universities. Our mission is to bring together faculty, students and administrators from diverse institutional settings so they may share and advance knowledge in global health training and practice. Capacity building, both within and between universities as well as with the greater community, is at the core of CUGH’s mission.

We achieve our mission through such activities as identifying and promulgating best practices for global health training, advocating for global health funding and standards, and establishing networking opportunities for persons and institutions interested in global health to come together and learn from each other.

2) One of the common threads between the Society and CUGH is the focus on training the future global health workforce. Students are eager to get international experience and program coordinators are keen to ensure project sites get the maximum benefit from young volunteers. What guidelines does CUGH recommend to ensure international experiences are valuable for both trainees and hosts?

In establishing international experiences, one needs to consider the needs and goals of everyone involved, including the sending institution, the student and the host (which may be an individual, an institution, an organization or a community).

While often framed as service programs, most international electives involving health science students are at their core probably educational experiences. Understanding this primary purpose, having the necessary infrastructure in place at all sites, and making sure that potential risks are reasonable given the likely educational benefits are key steps in establishing suitable international student electives.

Another contributor to successful international programs is having well-defined sender, student and host responsibilities, for example determining educational objectives, activities and appropriate supervision in advance of a student’s arrival. Proper pre-departure training is valuable for faculty and students interested in participating in international experiences, particularly those persons going overseas for the first time. Setting realistic expectations all around also is important. Though anecdotal, electives based on institutional relationships with long-term commitments to each other seem to be preferable to those based on individual relationships, but the central component for fruitful experiences is likely the presence of dedicated faculty at the sending and receiving organizations each of whom benefits from the relationship. Common sense also helps. An elective appropriate for a student who has previously been a Peace Corps volunteer in the country, speaks the language and knows the cultural norms may or may not be appropriate for another student who has never traveled internationally.

3) ASTMH and CUGH share other similarities, including a focus on education and research. What are some of the ways that our organizations can collaborate more in the future?

Around for just over 110 years, the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene has tremendous organizational experience facilitating international health research and educational partnerships. In particular, ASTMH members have long been at the forefront of health sciences research in low-resource settings, both basic and applied. This know-how is a terrific foundation on which to think about the emerging field of global health.

Though much younger, CUGH has strong roots in global health educational design and development, even more so since the merger between CUGH and the Global Health Educational Consortium (GHEC) in 2011. In addition, by focusing on universities, CUGH draws in non-health disciplines that are increasingly recognized as essential for addressing health inequity issues globally. The two sets of organizational assets are very complementary. Across the spectrum of activities both organizations currently are involved in, opportunities for collaboration abound. Our members have a mutual stake in ensuring adequate federal funding for global health research and programs.

There are likely ways we could advocate more effectively together. Assisting in the development and promotion of educational guidelines and materials, establishing programmatic and ethical recommendations for international student elective partnerships and facilitating networking opportunities across the Societies also would be of substantial benefits to all our members. There are no doubt many other examples as well.

4) In global health, there is sometimes a gap between researchers and those involved with the delivery of clinical care. How can we integrate better?

Linking research to practice is a complex challenge, touching on such diverse issues as research question formation and study design, the setting of funding agency priorities, general public awareness of and comfort with science, knowledge translation and cultural change. Like most complex problems, breaking this issue into component pieces capable of being addressed with testable hypotheses should be helpful. Successfully solving this challenge will require social scientists, policy experts, humanists, political scientists, advocacy experts and others besides the more traditional health science researchers. In addition, we need to be communicating with each other, our colleagues in other fields, the general public and decision-makers better than has sometimes occurred previously. Scientists should be engaging clinicians and communities; educators need to be more creative about improving general science literacy.

While much work remains, there has been significant progress in the almost 30 years I have been involved in research and clinical care here and abroad.

5) Some readers might wonder if their universities are members of CUGH or if they should join. What unique value does CUGH provide for universities?

Interested individuals may check the CUGH web site to see if their university is a member. Regarding value, in the short span of 5 years, CUGH has gone from an informal gathering of 24 program directors to over 120 institutional members. CUGH membership offers almost unparalleled networking opportunities; the annual conference alone now attracts more than 1,400 participants from almost 60 countries.

We also continue to scale-up programs. One new offering is our mentorship program, where directors at the early stages of global health program development are partnered with more experienced program director mentors. Assistance may range from informal phone calls to site visits depending on the mentee’s needs.

Another unique area for CUGH is supporting university administrative capacity to undertake international global health activities. Through regional workshops created by our Enabling Systems Working Group, administrators learn best practices regarding the logistical aspects of undertaking internationally-based programs such as risk management, hiring personnel and contracting office space, and meeting government reporting requirements. The Educational Committee is harmonizing global health core competencies across the health sciences disciplines with the aim of expanding their work to non-health science disciplines as well. A trainee advisory group was recently created, and we look forward to working with trainees to establish programs particularly suited for their needs.

CUGH is a dynamic, growing organization; I would strongly encourage any university-based global health program with questions about membership benefits to call the CUGH Secretariat and discuss how membership might help their individual program.


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ACGH Inaugural Global Health Careers Webchat

July 10, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

The following was submitted by Alexis Boyd, a active member of ACGH who helped coordinate this student-led webinar.  Boyd has a PhD in Microbiology and Immunology from The George Washington University and has spent the past 7 years researching filarial parasites. She is currently exploring a new career opportunity as a fellow at the Food and Drug Administration.

ASTMH’s Committee on Global Health (ACGH) is focusing on creating opportunities for students and professionals at any career stage interested in global health to network and explore the various career opportunities in the field. To accomplish this goal, the committee is sponsoring a series of live webchats with global health experts and leaders where individuals can ask career-related questions and seek advice. The first webchat took place in June and featured former ASTMH President Peter Hotez, MD, PhD, founding dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and president of the Sabin Vaccine Institute.

For this inaugural webchat, there were 17 participants and lively chat ensued with Dr. Hotez fielding questions on how he became interested in global health, what he considers his greatest accomplishment and how he balances the many demands on his time. Career related questions ranged from knowing what skills are important for global health advocacy to identifying potential roles that engineers can play in solving important global health problems. Dr. Hotez also provided keen insight on the importance of continued mentorship throughout a career and how to identify good mentors. Dr. Hotez encouraged the audience to stay true to their passions and find the strength to weather the crises of confidence that afflict even the most successful individuals. The webchat with Dr. Hotez was not only informative, but also motivational, and was met with highly positive reviews from the participants. The Committee on Global Health is planning on having webchats quarterly with different global health experts.

For more information on these chats or to nominate a speaker, please e-mail me at You can also find additional answers from Dr. Hotez at the Sabin Vaccine Institute blog.


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Welcome New Members - May 2014

June 16, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

The following individuals joined the Society this May:

Mary Adam
Kijabe Hospital

Adedayo Adedeji

Abayomi Ademola
Amazing Grace Hospital, Ijebu Ode Ogun State

Ritesh Agarwal
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Jason Bailey
University of Maryland Baltimore

Saroj Bapna
Haffkine Institute for training Research and Testing

Amanda Beaudoin
University of Minnesota

Roger Bedimo
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Brianna Beechler
Oregon State University

Roxanne Burrus
Nepmu Five

Elissa Butler
University of Minnesota Medical School

Kelly Callahan
The Carter Center, Trachoma Control Program

Rebecca Chancey
Duke University

Sarah Cusick
University of Minnesota

Roshni Daver
University of Texas Medical School at Houston and MD

Christina DeMatteo

Mike Dunbar
Iowa State University

Luis Escobar
SUNY Upstate Medical University

Dr. Michael Everson
Eisai Inc.

Sarjeet Gill
University of California Riverside

Scott Gordon

Tonya Gray
Mercy Family Clinic Forest Park

Joseph Indiano
Ball Memorial Hospital

Muna Jama
University of Minnesota

Shahid Karim
The University of Southern Mississippi

Leah Kern
UCSD Pediatrics Associates

Steven Kern
University of Utah

Jintao Li
Tropical Medecine Institute, Third Military Medical University

Donna Lopez

Francisco Luquero

Sophia Mangala M.
Protestant University of Congo

Theresa Nguyen

Chinedu Nkole

David Philpott


Silvia Portugal

David Pruschki
University of Washington

Scott Royal
University of North Carolina

Marcus Salmen
Hennepin County Medical Center

Ashley Scott
University of Notre Dame

Natalie Spillman

Joselyne Olga Talledo Rodríguez
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

Paul Trowbridge

Silvia Vilar Portugal

Karolyn Wanat
University of Iowa Hospital & Clinics

Gabriella Wuyke
Lynn University

Ya Zhou
University of Maryland School of Medicine


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Member Q&A: Lark Coffey, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis

June 16, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

ASTMH members are the best and the brightest in their field. Our member interviews highlight our diverse and growing membership. To read other member profiles, click here.

This month we speak with Lark Coffey, PhD, Assistant Professor, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. Coffey has been a member of ASTMH for 12 years and is actively involved with the American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses (ACAV.)

1) You’re an active member of the Society, including the subgroup ACAV. With a busy life full of demands, why is this something you make time for?

I believe in the collaborative environment and emphasis on education and training promoted by ASTMH. The Annual Meeting and ACAV activities are a wonderful place to visit with colleagues and to hear about current research. The meeting provides a regular setting to maintain contact with and follow the evolving science of fellow scientists. The symposium talks by ACAV members are a regular source of inspiration. The Annual Meeting fuels my excitement for studying arboviruses.

2) Some of your work concerns host specialization in arboviruses. To that end, what is one of that most interests you in that area of study right now?

Arboviruses that cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are subjected to unique evolutionary constraints by having to infect two disparate types of hosts. Historically, arbovirus genetics has only focused on understanding the phenotypic role of the consensus (average) viral genome in a mixed population. This approach vastly underrepresents the actual population diversity of RNA viruses, which exist as a swarm of closely related genomes that may express different host-specific phenotypes.

I am interested in better understanding the nature and function of viral genetic diversity in the swarm as it relates to arbovirus host specialization, dual-host cycling, and cross-species transmission. Recent technological advances now enable population sequencing at great depth to allow us to better study virus populations.

3) Also, on the topic of virus evolution, is there a mentor or person who has most influenced your thinking?

My Ph.D. mentor, Dr. Scott Weaver, played a fundamental role teaching me about arbovirus evolution propelling me into a career in the field. He also introduced me to the ASTMH and encouraged my annual attendance at meetings. Through his support, I was able to gain broad experience doing arbovirus ecology and genetics at tropical field sites and in laboratory settings.

4) A question for the non-science audience: why is the work you and your colleagues do important on a national and global scale?

Arboviruses are a scourge on human and veterinary health and we lack tools to prevent infection or treat illnesses most arboviruses cause. Epidemics caused by West Nile virus and the recent expansion of chikungunya virus in the Western Hemisphere highlight the need to better understand their ecologies, transmission cycles, and emergence. Uncovering the evolutionary dynamics of these pathogens, will allow us to develop novel mechanism to prevent and mitigate infections.

5) Congratulations on your tenure-track position. What guidance or advice helped you get to this point that up-and-coming researchers might find useful?

First, find a niche in a topic that really interests you and focus on generating good science. Second, let fellow scientists know what you are up to – the ASTMH Annual Meeting is an excellent avenue for networking, promoting your research, and finding job opportunities. Third, once you find a job posting, maximize your success by showing the search committee you are a “good fit” in the department and institution. This can be accomplished by identifying institutional partners as future collaborators.

In my own experience, I think the search committee at UC Davis appreciated my willingness to maintain and promote the continued development of the great body of excellent arbovirus research in California conducted previously by Bill Reisen, Aaron Brault, and others.

6) Now for the fun question. You get the opportunity to go back in time. You can either have a conversation with any scientist who has ever lived OR observe a moment of scientific history. What would you choose and why?

I would love to have been present to witness Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek using handcrafted magnifying glasses as microscopes in the 1600s to study biological fluids. van Leeuwenhoek was not the first to make microscopes, but he used them to discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm and blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers. It must have been amazing to realize for the first time that there was minute life-termed “animalcules” by van Leeuwenhoek-inside humans and animals.





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Career Development Opportunities at the Annual Meeting

June 14, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

Victoria McGovern, PhD, FASTMH, ASTMH Councilor and Associate Program Chair for Media Relations and Special Initiatives, provides the following update:

This year, the Annual Meeting is trying something new: adding more career content and opportunities to talk with senior members about how to build a life in tropical medicine, global health, or research. Though ASTMH has been around since 1903, many of the things we—the individual members— want remain the same as they were back then: we want to improve health; we want to understand the principles underlying threats to health; and because our concerns cross science, medicine, public health, and health delivery, we want to know one another across disciplines. Coming together face to face is still the best way to do this, so the Annual Meeting is one important way that our Society serves us. But the world is just bigger now than it was 101 years ago. Back then, a newcomer quickly came to know everyone, and could hope to hear about opportunities for opening up new work and advancing. One hundred and one years later, it’s gotten harder to get introduced and to learn (beyond working hard and well on problems that matter) how to succeed.

This year, we’re building new things-- just a step beyond what we’ve done in the past-- into the meeting to try to change that:

  • The Young Investigators Awards, competitive awards for work presented just before the start of the annual meeting, recognize one’s early work. This year, as part of the competition day, participants will have lunch with senior members explicitly to talk about where the Young Investigators want their careers to take them.
  • The Trop Stop has been a lounge for trainees. This year, it will host featuring topics like how to build your CV, how to apply for postdoctoral fellowships, and more.
  • The Subgroups provide a good way to get closer to people working in your area of interest. Last year, the Global Health subgroup tried “Speed Dating” to introduce many people to one another in a quality way in a short time. This was a very popular session, so they’re doing it again in 2014! The other subgroups will be trying other approaches, so stay tuned!

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Are antimalarials safe to young children?

May 28, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

This post is courtesy of our partners at the ACT Consortium:

Artemisinin based malaria drugs are viewed as safe, but animal safety studies raised concerns over their potential to cause damage to parts of the brain involved in hearing and balance. A group of scientists reviewed safety studies in humans and found a worrying lack of data from young children, the most vulnerable group. The results were published today in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (or ACTs) are highly effective antimalarials that have saved many lives and are the first-line treatment recommended by the WHO for uncomplicated malaria. Their safety is based on trials where treatment was given only once or twice, in adults and older children.

But in many parts of Africa – where safety is rarely monitored – younger children are at greater risk of getting malaria and may receive ACTs three or more times a year.

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World Malaria Day Perspectives: Jessica Taaffe, Global Health and Science Consultant

April 14, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

In advance of World Malaria Malaria Day, ASTMH asked some of our malaria expert members and colleagues to reflect on the global fight against the disease and to peer into their crystal balls and let us know what might be on the horizon. Other interviews in this series include: Admiral Tim Ziemer of the President's Malaria Initiative, ASTMH President Alan J. Magill, ASTMH Councilor Laurence Slutsker of the CDC, Judith E. Epstein of the Naval Medical Research Center and Kent Kester of Sanofi Pasteur.

See all interviews in our World Malaria Day 2014 series here.

Jessica Taaffe (@JessicaTaaffe), PhD, Global Health and Science Consultant

Why are you drawn to malaria research?

I was (and still am) drawn to malaria research because of its global impact. Although we don’t have to really worry about it in the United States, it’s responsible for so much disease in many parts of the world, and a huge killer of young children, who are the most susceptible to it.

I did my graduate thesis work on HIV for several years, specifically focusing on immunology in monkey models. There’s a lot of work being done in this area for HIV, but less so for malaria, and I saw a niche for me in malaria research. I knew I wanted to continue working on a disease with huge global impact, and one that I felt that my research efforts and experise could really make a difference and address a gap in knowledge. There’s still so much to learn about what provides immunological protection from malaria infection and disease, or how the immune resonse contributes to the latter, and malaria monkey models are a great way to start exploring these areas.

As we approach World Malaria Day, what is the biggest challenge with this disease?

I think setting priorities in the fight against malaria and balancing both programatic and reserach and development efforts is the biggest challenge. In a funding climate that is becoming limited for both global health and science, choosing which programs or research to fund is become increasingly important, and we must be very careful in these decisions, choosing interventions WE KNOW will work and the most promising technology and research to address problems and challenges in the field. The balance is imperative - I would argue for more money for R&D, but I wouldn’t want to take away from measures like bed net distribution, that are also important tools in our fight against malaria.

Where do you see the most promise?

I see the most long-term promise in investing in R&D for malaria, especially basic science. Both malaria infection and its causative agent are incredibly complex and there is still so much to learn about them. A better understanding of both natural or induced correlates of immunologic protection against malaria will lead to better malaria vaccines, and more research on the parasite itself could lead to novel drugs to treat malaria infection. In the near and long-term future, we will need these biomedical tools as we continue our fight against this global disease.



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World Malaria Day Perspectives: Kent Kester, Associate Vice President , Sanofi Pasteur

April 14, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

In advance of World Malaria Malaria Day, ASTMH asked some of our malaria expert members and colleagues to reflect on the global fight against the disease and to peer into their crystal balls and let us know what might be on the horizon. Other interviews in this series include: Admiral Tim Ziemer of the President's Malaria Initiative, ASTMH Councilor Laurence Slutsker of the CDC, Judith E. Epstein of the Naval Medical Research Center, Science Consultant Jessica Taaffe.

See all interviews in our World Malaria Day 2014 series here.

Kent Kester, MD, FASTMH, Associate Vice President, Clinical and Translational Sciences, Sanofi Pastuer

Why are you drawn to malaria research?

I started working in malaria research coincident with my Infectious Disease fellowship training at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Fellows had the great opportunity to pursue research projects at the nearby Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), where tropical disease research was and continues to play a prominent role. At the time, I had the good fortune to work in a department composed of highly motivated people who truly wanted to make a difference in tropical health by way of developing an effective vaccine against falciparum malaria. To me, this embodied much of the "classical" aspects of infectious disease research, focusing on a disease for which a vaccine is not yet available yet which has a huge morbidity and mortality impact in the developing world, coupled with modern scientific approaches to vaccinology. Owing to this alignment, coupled with my later assignment at the WRAIR as a full-time malaria vaccine developer, I was privileged to play a role in the clinical development of the current lead vaccine intended to protect against falciparum malaria, RTS,S—a vaccine that is now the subject of large-scale field trials in Africa. While I’m currently working in the private sector, my focus remains the development of vaccines—products that by definition are focused on the improvement of the broader public health status of populations.

As we approach World Malaria Day, what is the biggest challenge with this disease?

There are so many needs related to malaria, whether associated with the broad areas of control, elimination, and eradication, or more finely focused on local approaches to disease prevention (e.g., via the use of bednets). In the end, the financial challenges are substantial, something that contributed negatively in the prior malaria eradication campaigns.

Where do you see the most promise?

I’m encouraged by the continued visibility of malaria as a real public health problem associated with many developing countries. Certainly, the advocacy and funding provided by the BMGF has played a major role in keeping malaria in the news. Hopefully, their continuing efforts, joined with those of others (e.g., government agencies, other nonprofit organizations, and industry) will continue to push forward on multiple fronts to effectively deal with this perennial scourge. The work is incredibly important.



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World Malaria Day Perspectives: Captain Judith E. Epstein of the Naval Medical Research Center

April 14, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

In advance of World Malaria Malaria Day, ASTMH asked some of our malaria expert members and colleagues to reflect on the global fight against the disease and to peer into their crystal balls and let us know what might be on the horizon. Other interviews in this series include: Admiral Tim Ziemer of the President's Malaria Initiative, ASTMH Councilor Laurence Slutsker of the CDC, Kent Kester of Sanofi Pasteur and Science Consultant Jessica Taaffe.

See all interviews in our World Malaria Day 2014 series here.

Judith E. Epstein, MD, CAPT MC USN, Clinical Director, Malaria Vaccine Development Program at the Naval Medical Research Center

Why are you drawn to malaria research?

I first became interested in working on malaria nearly 30 years ago while taking a first year course in parasitology in medical school. I recall being fascinated by the view of malaria parasites under the microscope. The study of infectious diseases that primarily impact the developing world seemed to me like a great entryway into international medicine. I was amazed to learn that this disease, which is not part of our everyday experience in the United States, has such a devastasting impact worldwide. According to the most recent estimates, found on the World Health Organization website, there were about 207 million cases of malaria in 2012 and an estimated 627,000 deaths. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa with about one child dying every minute from malaria. Meanwhile, malaria continues to pose a significant threat to our warfighters deployed in malaria endemic area. The chance to work on a vaccine which might help to stem the tide of this disease has been the driving force for me. What started out as a simple medical school interest has become a passion.

As we approach World Malaria Day, what is the biggest challenge with this disease?

I think that the biggest challenge lies mobilizing a successful malaria vaccine. As aptly expressed in an editorial in The Lancet back in April 2010 (Volume 375, Issue 9724, Page 1407), "What is still needed is the only tool that has ever truly conquered any infectious disease: an effective and affordable vaccine."

Where do you see the most promise?

I think that the greatest promise lies in the results recently obtained with the testing of the live, attenuated whole parasite vaccine, Sanaria’s PfSPZ Vaccine. Results of a clinical trial that took place at the Vaccine Research Center, NIAID (detailed by Seder et al in Science Sept 20th 341: 1359-65) in collaboration with the Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC) and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research demonstrated efficacy of 100% against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in subjects who received the highest dose of the vaccine. We at NMRC remain closely involved in the testing and development of this vaccine. Such a vaccine, which could prevent both infection and disease, would be optimal for our troops deployed abroad as well as the millions of people living under the daily threat of this disease.



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World Malaria Day Perspectives: ASTMH President Alan J. Magill

April 14, 2014 · By Jaclyn Schiff · No Comments

In advance of World Malaria Malaria Day, ASTMH asked some of our malaria expert members and colleagues to reflect on the global fight against the disease and to peer into their crystal balls and let us know what might be on the horizon. Other interviews in this series include: Admiral Tim Ziemer of the President's Malaria Initiative, ASTMH Councilor Laurence Slutsker of the CDC, Judith E. Epstein of the Naval Medical Research Center, Kent Kester of Sanofi Pasteur and Science Consultant Jessica Taaffe.

See all interviews in our World Malaria Day 2014 series here.

Alan J. Magill, MD, FASTMH, ASTMH President

Why are you drawn to malaria research?

Every aspect of malaria, its history, biology, pathophysiology, ecology, and clinical management is endlessly fascinating for me. I became interested in malaria early in life as part of a greater interest in parasitology. Once I understood that malaria is a completely preventable, treatable, and eradicable disease, I could not understand why it caused so much suffering globally. I am committed to end this inequality.

As we approach World Malaria Day, what is the biggest challenge with this disease?

The biggest biologic challenge in malaria is the emergence of drug and insecticide resistance. Loss of pyrethroids or artemisinin will have a severely negative effect on future efforts to maintain the gains of the past decade. The biggest resource challenge is maintain the significant levels of investment from the major donor countries to the Global Fund and the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI). This will require political will and commitment at all levels and in all countries.

Where do you see the most promise?

Many African countries have made significant progress in the past decade and have seen what life can be like without children dying from malaria. They don’t want to go back in time. I see great promise in a new generation of African scientists, physicians, political leaders, and community leaders who will lead in the elimination of malaria from Africa. There is also a robust and very promising pipeline of new drug, vaccine, and vector interventions. Many of these new products will come to market in the next 5-10 years. I also sense that many now see malaria as a complex ecosystem of human – parasite – mosquito interactions and that viewing malaria this way opens up many new and innovative approaches to control and eventual eradication of the parasite.


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